Let's Study Japanese-Lesson6-
note: lesson is being written right now!
nouns and their particles
NOUNS and NOUN particles such as WA, GA, NI, ets
Each NOUN in Japanese is followed by a particle such as WA, GA, NI, ets
which defines the NOUN in some way and may also act upon it. These
particles are also called postpositions and are used in some languages to
indicate the CASE (nominative, objective, possesive, ets) of the preceding
noun. (English for example has only one case- the possesive and that is
defined by adding "'s" to a nous -such as "John's book")
Let's go over each major particle one by one with examples and
show how each is used. This is one of the hardest part of ANY language to
master and don't worry if you don't remember it right-a-way. Usually it
takes some practice and time. I remember how much trouble I had with them
while studing English.
WA denotates the nominative case. It is used to show what one is
talking about, or the subject of the sentance. One may translate WA as "as
for" or "with regards to".
KONO HON WA AKAI DESU. THIS BOOK or AS FOR THIS BOOK, IT IS RED.
GA shows that the noun it follows is both the grammatical subject of a
verb and also its emphalic subject. It is the a nominative
posposition very simular to WA, and it emphasizes the subject, while WA
denotes attention to the predicate. There is really no transation for it in
English. In English you place emphasis on a subject by rasing your voice,
(or putting a word in italics in written text), while in Japanese you
use the GA particle.
KORE WA HON DESU. THIS IS A BOOK.
KORE GA HON DESU. THIS(PARTICULAR ONE) IS A BOOK.
KISHI-SAN WA TO O SHIMETE IMASU. MR. KISHI IS CLOSING THE DOOR.
KISHI-SAN GA TO O SHIMETE IMASU. (IT IS)MR. KISHI(WHO) IS CLOSING THE
O is the objective case. It identifies the direct object, hence,
when we use O it gives the meaning: "here is a book presented for action to
be taken on it."
NO is the possesive case in Japanese. It shows ownership.
WATAKSHI NO HON MY(MINE) BOOK.
NI is one of the hardest postpositions to study because it has many uses.
Remember, that after EVERY noun, there MUST be a postposition in Japanese,
with only very few exceptions.