Let's Study Japanese-Lesson6-

note: lesson is being written right now! nouns and their particles

NOUNS and NOUN particles such as WA, GA, NI, ets

  Each NOUN in Japanese is followed by a particle such as WA, GA, NI, ets 
which defines the NOUN in some way and may also act upon it. These 
particles are also called postpositions and are used in some languages to 
indicate the CASE (nominative, objective, possesive, ets) of the preceding 
noun. (English for example has only one case- the possesive and that is 
defined by adding "'s" to a nous -such as "John's book")  
  Let's go over each major particle one by one with examples and
show how each is used. This is one of the hardest part of ANY language to 
master and don't worry if you don't remember it right-a-way. Usually it 
takes some practice and time. I remember how much trouble I had with them 
while studing English.




  WA denotates the nominative case. It is used to show what one is 
talking about, or the subject of the sentance. One may translate WA as "as 
for" or "with regards to". 

KONO HON WA AKAI DESU.      THIS BOOK or AS FOR THIS BOOK, IT IS RED. 

AKAI                         RED




  GA shows that the noun it follows is both the grammatical subject of a 
verb and also its emphalic subject. It is the a nominative 
posposition very simular to WA, and it emphasizes the subject, while WA 
denotes attention to the predicate. There is really no transation for it in 
English. In English you place emphasis on a subject by rasing your voice, 
(or putting a word in italics in written text), while in Japanese you 
use the GA particle. 

    KORE WA HON DESU.                THIS IS A BOOK. 
    KORE GA HON DESU.                THIS(PARTICULAR ONE) IS A BOOK. 
    
    KISHI-SAN WA TO O SHIMETE IMASU. MR. KISHI IS CLOSING THE DOOR. 

    KISHI-SAN GA TO O SHIMETE IMASU. (IT IS)MR. KISHI(WHO) IS CLOSING THE                                                                   
         DOOR.



  O is the objective case. It identifies the direct object, hence, 
when we use O it gives the meaning: "here is a book presented for action to 
be taken on it."




  NO is the possesive case in Japanese. It shows ownership.

  WATAKSHI  NO HON                     MY(MINE) BOOK. 



  NI is one  of the hardest postpositions to study because it has many uses. 










  MADE  




 Remember, that after EVERY noun, there MUST be a postposition in Japanese, 
with only very few exceptions.