Lesson 2- this, that, that over there, what, the 3 types of the verb to be



KORE WA HON DESU                this is a book  
ARE WA NAN DESU KA              what is that(over there)?
ARE WA AKAI HON DESU            that(over there) is a red book
SORE WA EMPITSU DESU KA         is that(there) a pencil?


KORE WA                         as  for this(nom case) 
HON DESU                        (it) is (a) book
ARE WA                          as for that(over  there) (nom case)
NAN DESU KA                     what is (it)?
AKAI                            red
AKAI HON                        red book
AKAI HON DESU                   (it) is (a) red book
KA                              the japanese equivalent to a question mark  
SORE WA                         that(there)


KONO                            (adj) this(requires a noun)
SONO                            (adj) that(requires a noun)
ANO                             (adj) that over there(requires a noun)

notice the difference:
KONO HON                        this book
KONO AKAI HON                   this red book
KORE WA AKAI HON DESU           this is a red book 

SORE WA EMPITSU DEWA ARIMASEN   that is not a pencil 
KORE WA KUROI EMPITSU DESU KA   is this a black pencil?

KONO EMPITSU WA                 as for this pen(nom case)
KUROI DESU KA                   is it black?

HAI                             yes
IIE                             no

HAI, KUROI DESU                 yes, it is black
SONO HAKO WA AKAI HAKO DESU KA  is that box a red box?

IIE, SO DEWA ARIMASEN           no, it is not.

IIE, AKAI HAKO DEWA ARIMASEN    no, it is not a red box

KONO HON                        this book
KONO KUROI HON WA               as for this black book(nom case)

KONO KUROI HON WA ZIBIKI DESU KA is this black book a dictionary?

ZIBIKI                           dictionary
HAKO                             box
KUROI                            black
AKAI                             red
NEKO                             cat     
                    

the verb to BE or NOT to BE -is that the qestion?

there is more than one way to say IS in Japanese. Compare:

ENPITSU DESU.                 IT IS A PENCIL.
ENPITSU GA ARIMASU.           THERE IS A PENCIL.
NYUU YOKU NI IMASU.           HE IS IN NEW YORK. 

When you say one thing is equal to another(A = B), you use DESU.
When you say something is located or situated in a place, use ARIMASU
if it is inanimate, or IMASU if it is animate.

ARIMASU and IMASU are ordinary verbs and are inflected just like any other 
verb. The negative of DESU is NOT at all like DESU: it is either JA ARIMASEN
or DE WA ARIMASEN or DE ARIMASEN:

 SORE WA ENPITSU DESU.         THAT IS A PENCIL(A equals B).      
 SORE NI ENPITSU GA ARIMASU.   THERE IS A PENCIL THERE.
 SORE NI KODOMO GA IMASU.      THERE IS A CHILD THERE.
 SORE WA TABAKO DESU KA.       IS THAT A CIGARETTE?
 TABAKO GA ARIMASU KA.         IS THERE A CIGARETTE? 
 YAMADA SAN SOKO NI IMASU KA.  IS MR YAMADA THERE? 
 SHIKAGO WA OOKI DESU.         CHICAGO IS A BIG CITY. 

 NOUN + NI(WA) to a...(noun)
 NOUN + GA ARIMASU there is a.../...has...(noun) inanimate objects
 NOUN + GA IMASU there is a.../...has...(noun) animate objects 

 INU NI WA ASHI GA YON-HON ARIMASU  
        to a dog, there are 4 feet(dogs have 4 feet)

 DO NOT mix ARIMASU with MOTTE IMASU

 MOTTE IMASU shows ownership and/or possession and translates as to have, 
as for example:

WATAKUSHA WA NIHONGO ZIBIKI O MOTTE IMASU.  I have a Japanese dictionary

WATAKSHI NO HEYA NI WA TEREBI GA ARIMASU.   To my room, there is a TV. 
I have a TV in my room.   




well, this is all for lesson 6! see you in lesson 7 I hope!